In the combined treatment of many diseases of the kidneys health food is one of the major sites. The nature of the therapeutic feeding depends on the diagnosis, symptoms and stages of the disease, the degree of renal impairment, as well as other measurement methods and treatments.
Kidneys and their function in the human body
Kidneys – is paired organ of urine formation, which plays an important role in maintaining a constant internal environment (homeostasis) of the human body. The main function of the kidneys is to move the body of excess fluid and harmful products of metabolism. Impaired function of the kidney is called kidney failure. Kidney failure causes the liquid and toxic metabolic products begin to accumulate in the body, disrupting the internal organs and systems.
All kidney disease can occur both acute and chronic. They may or may not be accompanied by renal insufficiency, which also happens to be acute and chronic. The main renal disease – is glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis, who have both acute and chronic.
Diet for acute glomerulonephritis
Glomerulonephritis – is infectious and allergic inflammation of the kidney, which is bilateral. Glomerulonephritis caused by various infections, the introduction of foreign substances in the body and so on. In response to the introduction of such factors (antigens), the body produces antibodies that by sticking to the antigen to form insoluble complexes is deposited in the walls of the renal vessels and in violation of their work. At the same time there are antibodies to its own tissues of the kidneys. All this causes inflammation and necrosis (destruction) of the cell walls of the blood vessels of the kidneys (renal glomeruli are responsible for filtering the blood) and disrupts the function of the kidneys. Acute glomerulonephritis seen three main symptoms: the appearance of protein in the urine, high blood pressure and edema.
Diet for acute glomerulonephritis starts with sharp restrictions protein foods (in glomerulonephritis violated mainly exchange protein) and salt (as it promotes water retention in the body and in glomerulonephritis in the patient, and so there is edema). Therefore, the first few days of use, fruit-sugar diet: 1 kg of fruit per day (sweet apples, grapes, watermelon, melon).
If the patient’s condition is improving (this is confirmed by laboratory tests), it is transferred to a lacto-vegetarian diet with a reduction in the amount of protein in the diet by half relative to the norm. All food is prepared without salt, the amount of fluid in the daily diet is dependent on how it is retained in the body. Allowed boiled or stewed vegetable dishes (including in the form of mashed potatoes), cereals, pasta, milk soups, fruit juices. With further improvement of the state are introduced yogurt, scrambled eggs or in an omelet, sour cream, vegetable oil and butter, dried salt-free bread. This diet number 7, which is not recommended to apply at least 3 months.
When a persistent improvement of the patient and laboratory data after 3-4 months diet gradually begin to expand: introducing regular white bread, cheese, meat and fish. If all of these products are well tolerated and do not appear edema, then little by little begin to enter the salt (no more than 5 grams a day for podsalivaniya salt-free dishes). Six months after the onset of the disease is introduced into the diet of broth with meat and fish, as well as products with higher allergenicity (eg, citrus).
Diet in chronic glomerulonephritis
Chronic hlomerulonefrit can proceed with a predominance of certain features: large amounts of protein and blood in the urine, edema, and high blood pressure. Depending on which characteristics predominate in a given patient, it is assigned and diet.
In allocating large amounts of protein in the urine and high blood pressure assigned lacto-vegetarian diet, as in acute glomerulonephritis. When the swelling limit table salt and water.
Without exacerbation diet gradually expanded with the introduction of protein products (meat, fish, cheese) and salt. A few months after the acute patient should receive a common set of products, in which the ratio of animal and vegetable protein should be 3:2.
Pyelonephritis – an inflammation of the renal interstitial tissue (connective tissue, which is the skeleton of the kidneys). Pyelonephritis can be acute or chronic.
Pyelonephritis diet is not as important as in glomerulonephritis, since it almost never disturbed renal function. In acute pyelonephritis with high fever and severe intoxication recommend taking plenty of fluids, fruits and vegetables, is a diuretic (eg, watermelon). After the acute symptoms will pass, the patient is transferred to the normal food with the exception of spicy, fried and extractives (meat and fish broth) dishes.
During exacerbation of chronic pyelonephritis food is the same as in the acute process, out of aggravation – the usual diet with the exception of diet extractives (fried foods, strong broths).