Human blood has many functions, one of which is protective of white blood cells-leukocytes. Certain types of white blood cells do their job of protecting the body from infection. Together they represent a harmonious “Ensemble”, in which everyone is busy with his business without disturbing the other.
Leukocytes and their types
Leukocytes, or white blood cells in the body perform a protective function through the destruction of the organism of alien forces and participating in various pathologic (painful) processes and reactions (for example, in the reaction of inflammation).
Leukocytes are divided into granular or granulocytes, which contains graininess in the kernel (basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils – their names are connected with dyeing before analysis) and nezernistye – agranulocyte (lymphocytes and monocytes). All white blood cells are divided into two groups, engaged in cellular immunity and humoral immunity. White blood cells, cell-mediated immunity, absorb and dissolve within foreign particles, including germs (phagocytosis), destroy the tumour cells, cell tissue transplant alien of another human being, human tissue cells within which “hid” infectious. White blood cells, humoral immunity, produce antibodies that destroy foreign particles (including infectious), trapped in the body.
Neutrophils, their structure and function
Neutrophils and Neutrophil granulocytes are the cells that are in a mature kind are divided into segments and core are called segmentoâdernymi by neutrophils, their blood is considerably greater than the immature forms that have a paločkoobraznoe core (banded neutrophils). The ratio of these types of neutrophils is of great diagnostic value. Neutrophils make up 93-96% of all leukocytes.
All kinds of neutrophils can move quickly (for example, to the home of infection is called hemotaksisom) and move through the walls of capillaries, entering the tissues in need of their protection.
The main function of neutrophils to phagocytose, i.e. absorption and dissolution of alien particles, but they are able to dissolve only small particles or cells and after reconstitution are killed.
In neutrophils contain enzymes that destroy bacteria Lysosomal Storage, as well as enzymes that are active in the blood of antimicrobial substances. The latter have yellow-green is the color of neutrophils and pus that forms at the site of inflammation from a mixture of infectious agents, neutrophils and cell degradation products of the inflamed tissue. In acute infectious diseases, the number of neutrophils is growing rapidly. They can get energy by anaerobic Glycolysis (receipt of glucose as a source of energy without oxygen) and therefore can exist even in tissues deprived of oxygen (badly inflamed, edematous, krovosnabjaemah). Lysosomal Storage enzymes released from the breakdown of neutrophils causes softening of the surrounding tissues-formation of purulent inflammation. Live 2-3 days of neutrophils.
Neutrophils defend the body against bacterial and fungal infections, less – from virus infection.
Increase in the number of neutrophils in the blood
Increase in the number of neutrophils in the blood is called nejtrofilezom or nejtrofil′nym Leukocytosis. Neutrophilia occurs most often in response to infection, and it is more pronounced the greater the resistance. Neutrophilia is typical for acute inflammatory diseases in chronic conditions number of neutrophils is almost no growth. Neutrophilia occurs also when the death knell of fabrics (e.g. heart attacks), decaying malignant tumors, blood diseases and other.
If sopovoždaetsâ increasing number of neutrophilia immature neutrophils (paločkoâdernyh) form, then talking about nejtrofil′nom shift to the left, which is typical for severe infections and some malignancies. The emergence of a large number of neutrophils is called nejtrofil′nym segmentoâdernyh shift to the right, it is typical for radiation sickness, B12-deficiency anemia, certain diseases of the liver and kidneys.
Decrease in the number of neutrophils in the blood
Decrease in the number of neutrophils is called neutropenia and it always says to lower immunity. Neutropenia may be due to reduced formation of neutrophils, in violation of their redeployment or heavy destruction.
Neutropenia can occur with heavy infections, and it is a bad prognostic sign, which suggests that defenses are exhausted. Neutropenia are accompanied by some viral (infectious hepatitis, influenza, measles, rubella) and fungal infections, and infections that are caused by protozoa. When taking certain medications (for example, sul′faninamidov, dipyrone, drugs used in the treatment of malignant tumors) also reduced the number of neutrophils, and therefore the immunity. Developing neutrophils may fall under different marrow diseases (for example, if it is damaged ionizing radiation), where they are produced, in certain blood diseases, autoimmune diseases (allergy to own tissues) and systemic diseases of connective tissue and so on.
Neutrophils are the protectors of our body, they were the first to encounter the “enemy” and give it back.